In accordance with paragraph 36 of resolutionthe Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee makes accessible a narrative summary of reasons for the listing for individuals, groups, undertakings and entities included in the Al-Qaida Sanctions List.
Its members have increased to about with the recruitment of some non-Chinese to the organization. Its organizational structure has been strengthened, its scale enlarged, its internal administration has become more sophisticated, and the group has developed its weaponry, equipment and operational capacity. In recent years, ETIM has set up bases outside China to train terrorists and has dispatched its members to China to plot and execute terrorist acts including bombing buses, cinemas, department stores, markets and hotels.
ETIM has also undertaken assassinations and arson attacks and has carried out terrorist attacks against Chinese targets abroad. These incidents resulted in the deaths of people and injuries to By Septemberthe Chinese police forces had confiscated from ETIM members 98 guns of various types, antitank grenades, and a large amount of knives, explosive devices and raw materials and equipment for making explosives.
InETIM sent its key members into China to establish terrorist training camps and to carry out terrorist training activities. On 5 Januarywhen Chinese authorities made arrests, the group resisted with arms, killing one policeman and injuring another. During this operation, several members of this cell were arrested and a large number of explosives and materials for making explosives were seized. In JanuaryChinese police succeeded in arresting heads and key members of a terrorist cell, discovering several hideouts, and seizing a large number of explosives and materials for making explosives.
At the beginning of MarchETIM sent its operatives to China in an attempt to kidnap foreign reporters, tourists and athletes. This cell covertly collected various materials for making explosives, identified technicians with expertise in making guns and explosives, looked for suicide bombers and attempted to carry out terrorist acts through suicide bombings in Urumqi and other cities inside China. On 26 MarchChinese authorities arrested several cell members and seized a large number of explosives, detonators and other explosive devices.
After the Beijing Olympics, ETIM continued to send members into China, ostensibly for commercial activities, but in fact to look for opportunities to plan and carry out further terrorist attacks, such as car bombings, suicide bombings and poisoning. The organization trained more than 20 terrorists to execute car bombings in China.
SinceETIM has published several terrorist videos on military training, targeting the Beijing Olympics and other events in China. On 22 Maytwo suspected ETIM members were deported to China from Kyrgyzstan on the ground that they were planning terrorist attacks. The Kyrgyz government stated that the two men were planning to target embassies in Bishkek, as well as trade centers and public gathering places.
One of them, Mamet Yasyn was found to have conducted surveillance of several embassies and market places. The major sources of funding for ETIM activities came from Usama bin Laden deceased and Al-Qaida and from organized crime such as drug trafficking, arms smuggling, kidnapping, extortion and looting.
ETIM identifies and recruits criminals and terrorists who have fled China and secretly provides them with terrorist training. ETIM is also considering using Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan as transit routes for the illegal transfer of fighters to China. Skip to main content. Welcome to the United Nations. Toggle navigation Language:. Date on which the narrative summary became available on the Committee's website:. Reason for listing:. Additional information:. Related listed individuals and entities:.
Al-Qaida QDe.The U. The group and its ties to Muslim fundamentalism have compounded Chinese concerns about the rising threat of terrorism within the country as its restive western regions faced a spate of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang province, where the group is based, is a vast, sparsely populated area that shares borders with eight countries, including Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Terrorism and Counterterrorism. In AugustChinese state media released a report stating that Memetuhut Memetrozi, a co-founder of ETIM who is serving a life sentence in China for his involvement in terrorist attacks, had been indoctrinated in a madrassa in Pakistan.
EASTERN TURKISTAN ISLAMIC MOVEMENT
The report, which said Memetuhut had met Mahsum in and launched ETIM later that year, marked a rare public admission of Pakistani ties to Uighur militancy. Some experts say ETIM is an umbrella organization for many splinter groups, including ones that operate in Pakistan and central Asia.
That group took credit for a series of attacks in several Chinese cities inincluding deadly bus explosions in Shanghai and Kunming. According to U. Ben N. Venzke, head of the U.
Others are not convinced. Omer Kanat, senior editor of the Uighur service for U. The Uighurs pronounced WEE-guhrs number around ten million in China, largely in Xinjiang, which became a province in Ethnically Turkic, they speak Uighur and most practice Sufi Islam. The Uighurs briefly achieved statehood twice after the fall of the Qing Dynasty — —once from toand again from towhen the communists took power and brought the region under their complete control.
While some Uighurs seek a separate state, others prefer to maintain a cultural distinction and autonomous rapport with China, she noted. Some are also content with integration into the Chinese system. InChina signed the Shanghai Treaty with Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, using the accord to pressure Central Asian states to deter their ethnic Uighur minorities from supporting separatism in Xinjiang and to guarantee extradition of Uighurs fleeing China.
In Julya fight erupted in a factory in the southern province of Guangdong when Uighurs accused Han Chinese coworkers of racial violence. Ilham Tohti, a prominent Uighur economist who had written critically about government policies toward the ethnic group, was later detained and has since been placed intermittently under house arrest.
A recent spate of knife attacks has heightened concerns. An assault outside a railroad station in Guangzhou in May marked the third of its kind since March, when a group of Uighurs killed twenty-nine people at a railway station in KunmingYunnan province.
In late April, a bomb and knife assault left three people dead outside a train station in Urumqi, Xinjiang. In Januarya Chinese government study reported that ETIM had received money, weapons, and support from the terrorist organization. According to the report, ETIM militants were trained by al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and crossed back into Xinjiang, where they set up terrorist cells. That same year, U. They were ultimately cleared of terrorism charges and repatriated to Albania, Bermuda, Palau, Switzerland, and Pakistan.
Since September 11,China has repeatedly tried to paint its campaign against Uighur separatists in Xinjiang as a flank of the U. China has accused ETIM of bombing buses, markets, and government institutions—as well as assassinating local officials, Muslim leaders, and civilians—in attacks that have killed people.
The group took credit again in July for two attacks primarily targeting government officials in Xinjiang, according to the State Department: An incident at a police department in Hotan claimed four lives, and a series of bomb and knife attacks in Kashgar left at least twelve dead and over forty injured. A Tiananmen Square car bomb attack, which killed five and injured forty, marked the first time the government blamed an attack directly on ETIM.
A burgeoning security presence, marked by a proliferation of campaigns in which suspected nationalists are rounded uphas also sought to limit the spread of radicalism. The government increased its public security budget for Xinjiang by almost ninety percent in The regime has also deployed economic tools to address socioeconomic gaps, with current and previous administrations emphasizing development strategies [PDF] to reduce poverty and build regional infrastructure in a bid to quell separatist fervor.
But human rights groups maintain that China uses counterterrorism efforts as a pretext to suppress Uighurswho often resent the restriction of religious and cultural expression. After the Tiananmen attack, Uighurs blamed the violence on cultural repression, corruption, and police abuses. Chien-peng Chung profiles Uighur separatism in this Foreign Affairs article. Book by Yanzhong Huang October 15, Blog Post by Christopher W.Since the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang September 25,the "East Turkistan" forces have never resigned themselves to their defeat.
The tiny group of separatists who had fled abroad from Xinjiang collaborated with those at home, and carried out splittist and sabotage activities with the support of certain international forces.
Especially in the s, influenced by religious extremism, separatism and international terrorism, part of the "East Turkistan" forces plotted and organized a number of explosions, assassinations, arsons, poisonings and assaults, seriously jeopardizing the lives, property and security of the people of various ethnic groups, and social stability in Xinjiang. The terrorist organization aims to split China and create a unification of state and church, Islamic state of East Turkestan.
The organization was established in Turkey in and its headquarter settled in Istanbul. It is a terrorist organization conspiring to split Xinjiang from China. It was a terrorist organization, established in Munich, Germany, June, The organization conspired terrorist activities and advocated religious extremism on Internet.Internment camps with up to a million prisoners.
Empty neighborhoods. Studentsmusiciansathletesand peaceful academics jailed. A massive high-tech surveillance state that monitors and judges every movement. Major mosques in the major cities of Kashgar and Urumqi now stand empty. Prisoners in the camps are told to renounce God and embrace the Chinese Communist Party. Prayers, religious education, and the Ramadan fast are increasingly restricted or banned.
Even in the rest of China, Arabic text is being stripped from public buildings, and Islamophobia is being tacitly encouraged by party authorities. But amid this state-backed campaign against their religious brethren, Muslim leaders and communities around the world stand silent.
Why is there tension between China and the Uighurs?
This followed similar moves by Malaysia and Pakistan in This is in stark contrast to how these countries react to news of prejudice against Muslims by the West or, especially, Israel. Events in Gaza have sparked protests across the Islamic world, not only in the Middle East but also in more distant Bangladesh and Indonesia. If Egypt or Malaysia had deported Palestinians to Israeli prisons, the uproar would likely have been ferocious.
But the brutal, and expressly anti-religious, persecution of Uighurs prompts no response, even as the campaign spreads to the Uighur diaspora worldwide. Part of the answer is that money talks. China has become a key trade partner of every Muslim-majority nation. In South Asia, this means infrastructure investment. In Southeast Asia, China is a key market for commodities such as palm oil and coal. The ongoing persecution has caught up some of their own citizens, or their families.
But with both close economic and geopolitical ties to China, these countries are highly reluctant to speak up. But there are subtler reasons the Uighur are ignored.China says a group of religious extremists plotted and carried out a violent attack Sunday in the remote region of Xinjiang, and that their leaders received training in camps run by a banned terrorist group - the East Turkestan Islamic Movement - based in neighboring Pakistan.
Regional terrorism analysts say this is not the first time that China has blamed the group for attacks and, most likely, not the last. But what is ETIM? What do the United States and China know about the group and their history and their connections to acts of terrorism? A little more than two months after the September 11 attacks, China released a document that outlined what it called the terrorist activities of more than 40 East Turkestan organizations, both inside and outside of Chinese territory.
The document also linked the groups to al-Qaida and the Taliban and outlined how Uighur fighters were being trained and receiving funding in Afghanistan. Ethnic Uighurs are a minority group in Xinjiang. Many resent China's policies in the remote region and some support the effort to establish an independent state of East Turkestan in Xinjiang. Al-Qaida, Taliban connection In the Chinese document, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement was among eight organizations listed as openly advocating violence.
It says they received funding from bin Laden and trained in his camps. Several months later, in January ofChina gave a more in-depth accounting of what it called East Turkestan terrorist forcesincluding ETIM, and blamed groups inside and outside of China for more than incidents in Xinjiang between and The United States has placed the group on two terrorist lists - one for finance in and another for immigration in Washington has as yet to add the group to the State Department's list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.
Elusive organization in decline? Hassan Makhsum was killed by Pakistani forces inand subsequently, the U. Rohan Gunaratna adds that, although its membership is not as big now as it was in the past, the group still has significant propaganda capabilities.
Since then, ETIM's membership is below 2, members and they have mostly been working with al-Qaida and the Islamic Jihad Union because they don't want to operate by themselves as an organization,? Terrorist activities ETIM drew public attention ahead of the Olympics in Beijing, when the group, under the name of the Turkestan Islamic Party, claimed responsibility for a series of attacks in Xinjiang and deadly bus explosions in Shanghai and Yunnan.
In a video released at that time, the group threatened to carry out more attacks, even biological attacks during the Olympics. Inthe U. Treasury Department blacklisted the current leader of the group, Abdul Haq, calling him a? In a statement, the Treasury Department says the forces he commanded sought to sow violence and fracture international unity at the Olympic Games in China.
It also said that, since lateHaq had sent terrorists to the Middle East to raise funds and buy explosives materials for Chinese targets outside China. Todd Reed and Diana Raschke wrote that, although some claims of responsibility by ETIM were dubious, it is likely they were responsible for at least some of the violence that occurred in the run up to the Beijing Olympics. Such ambiguity about ETIM? The State Department states that the group's strength is?
ETIM is responsible for various terrorist acts inside and outside China.
East Turkestan independence movement
Fragmented information Dru Gladney, a professor of anthropology at the University of Hawaii in Manoa, who studies Xinjiang and the Uighurs, says,? There is no reliable independently verified information on this organization, there's widespread suspicion among experts that this so called ETIM is an umbrella term for several small groups or individuals acting alone and that there is actually no bona fide active ETIM organization that is coordinating attacks in China or elsewhere for that matter.?
Terrorism analysts say that the United States obtained first-hand information about the group from Uighurs detained at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. Rohan Gunaratna says these detainees in fact provided key insights for investigators. The U. Gladney says that fact has raised more questions than answers about their insights into the terrorist group. The fact that most Uyghur detainees from Guantanamo have been released suggests that the U.
Gunaratna says, although ETIM may be a rag-tag organization, it is still a significant movement. No group has claimed responsibility for the recent attacks in Xinjiang's western city, Kashgar. Gunaratna suspects the attackers were mostly inspired by ETIM and that perhaps one or two members of the group were involved. He says that will not become clear until China completes its investigation into the incident. Open main navigation Live TV.
Full Schedule.Its stated goals are to establish an independent state called East Turkestan replacing Xinjiang. Likely inspired by the success of the mujahideen against the Soviets, the TIP became prominent in April during the Baren Township riot. The revolt lasted several days and was put down by the CCP, who deployed significant forces to suppress the insurrection.
The CCP viewed them as a jihadist movement akin to the mujahideen in Afghanistan across the border which gave birth to more radical movements such as the Party of Allah and the Islamic Movement of East Turkistan.
Since the September 11 attacksthe group has been designated as a terrorist organization by China, the European Union,  Kyrgyzstan, [note 2]   Kazakhstan,  Malaysia,  Pakistan,  Russia,  Turkey,   United Arab Emirates,   the United Kingdom   and the United States,  in addition to the United Nations. The Chinese government alleges that Mahsum met with leaders of al-Qaeda and the Taliban including Osama bin Laden in in Afghanistan to coordinate actions, though Mahsum denied this.
Potter writes that despite the fact that "throughout the s, Chinese authorities went to great lengths to publicly link organizations active in Xinjiang—particularly the ETIM—to al-Qaeda [ State Department have listed them as a terrorist organisation since and as having received "training and financial assistance" from al-Qaeda.
They include Mustafa Setmariam Nasar Abu Yahya al-Libi  and current al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri who has on multiple occasions issued statements naming Xinjiang calling it "East Turkestan" as one of the "battlegrounds" of "jihad to liberate every span of land of the Muslims that has been usurped and violated. Andrew McGregor, writing for the Jamestown Foundationnotes that "though there is no question a small group of Uyghur militants fought alongside their Taliban hosts against the Northern Alliance [ The United States captured 22 Uyghur militants from combat zones in Afghanistan in on information that they were linked to Al-Qaeda.
After being found No Longer Enemy Combatant i. Despite the alarm of politicians that the release of embittered former Guantanamo detainees into the United States was unsafe and illegal, they could not be released back to China because of its human rights record. Dru C.
Stratfor has noted repeated unexplained attacks on Chinese buses in have followed a history of ETIM targeting Chinese infrastructure, and noted the group's splintering and subsequent reorganization following the death of Mahsum. Intelligence analysts J. Todd Reed and Diana Raschke acknowledge that reporting in China presents obstacles not found in countries where information is not so tightly controlled. However, they found that ETIM's existence and activities could be confirmed independently of Chinese government sources, using information gleaned from ETIM's now-defunct website, reports from human rights groups and academics, and testimony from the Uyghur detainees at Guantanamo Bay.
Nick Holdstock, in a New York Times interview claimed that no organization is taking responsibility for attacks in Xinjiang, and that there is not enough proof to blame any organization for the attacks, that most "terrorism" there is "unsubstantiated", and that posting internet videos online is the only thing done by the "vague and shadowy" ETIM.
Lebanese American political scientist and Al Akhbar columnist As'ad AbuKhalil slammed and criticized western media for not reporting on the massive Turkistan Islamic Party inghimasi participation in the Aleppo offensive June—August since it goes against their agenda. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from East Turkestan Islamic Movement.
This article is about the Jihadist organization. For the secessionist movement, see East Turkestan independence movement. Xinjiang conflict. Main article: Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria. Main article: Uyghur detainees at Guantanamo Bay.
Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 23 April Global Times. Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 22 June The Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 17 May The East Turkestan independence movementalso known as the Xinjiang independence movement or the Uyghur independence movementis a political and social movement seeking independence for Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China as a homeland for the Uyghur peopleto be named " East Turkestan ".
The territory of East Turkistan Xinjiang has been continuously controlled by the People's Republic of China since it incorporated East Turkistan in The Chinese government considers all support for the East Turkestan independence movement to fall under the definitions of " terrorismextremismand separatism ". The most common name for Xinjiang used by independence advocates is " East Turkestan " or "Uyghurstan". There is no consensus among secessionists about whether to use "East Turkestan" or "Uyghurstan";  "East Turkestan" has the advantage of also being the name of two historical political entities in the region, while Uyghurstan appeals to modern ideas of ethnic self-determination.
Uyghurstan is also a difference in emphasis in that it excludes more peoples in Xinjiang than just the Han but the "East Turkestan" movement  is still a Uyghur phenomenon.
The name "East Turkestan" is not currently used in an official sense by most sovereign states and intergovernmental organizations. Another proposed alternative is "Yarkand" or "Yarkent," which harkens back to the Yarkent Khanatea powerful Uyghur state in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Kokandi Yaqub Beg invaded Kashgar during the Dungan revolt to establish an independent state after taking advantage of local rebellions. Also, during the Dungan revolt, the Taranchi Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang initially cooperated with the Dungans Chinese Muslims when they rose in revolt, but turned on them, because the Dungans, mindful of their Chinese heritage, attempted to subject the entire region to their rule.
The Taranchi massacred the Dungans at Kuldja and drove the rest through the Talk pass into the Ili valley. One of the earliest attempts at East Turkestan independence was the establishment of the short-lived " First East Turkestan Republic " aka "Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan"which lasted between and The rebellion led to the establishment of the Second East Turkistan Republic —which existed in three northern districts IliTarbaghataiAltai of Xinjiang with secret aid from the Soviet Union.
Ever since the Chinese economic reform from the late s exacerbated uneven regional development, while Uyghurs have migrated to urbanizing Xinjiang cities, some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang for independent economic advancement. A police roundup of suspected separatists during Ramadan resulted in large demonstrations that turned violent in February in an episode known as the Ghulja Incident that led to at least 9 deaths.
Speaking on separatist violence, Erkin Alptekin, a former East Turkestan National Congress chairman and prominent Uyghur activistsaid: "We must emphasize dialog and warn our youth against the use of violence because it delegitimizes our movement".
Despite much talk of separatism and terrorism in Xinjiang, especially after the attacks in the United States and the US invasion of Afghanistanthe situation in Xinjiang was quiet from the late nineties through mid InUygur author Nurmemet Yasin was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for inciting separatism following his publication of an allegorical short story, "The Blue Pigeon".
Several proponents of independence state that the Uyghurs have had a defined history in Xinjiang for "over years",  a claim which has neither been proven nor disproven.
There are historical arguments for the independence of Xinjiang, such as the argument that the People's Republic of China is a colonial occupier of Xinjiang, rather than the sovereign state which has traditionally ruled over Xinjiang. Evidence for this argument usually consists of claims that the PRC is not the legitimate successor state to either the ROC now based in Taiwan or the previous imperial dynasty of China, which is the Qing dynastyor that previous regimes were also illegitimate.
The main camp which is opposed to Xinjiang East Turkestan independence is the Government of China and its supporters including Chinese nationalists. China officially claims that Xinjiang has been part of China the historical region since the year 60 BCE, when the Han dynasty of China established the Protectorate of the Western Regions.
Historically, various Chinese governments have described invasions of Xinjiang as a sort of " reconquest " of previously lost territories ever since the Han and Tang dynasties. Some Uyghur nationalist historians such as Turghun Almas claim that Uyghurs were distinct and independent from Chinese for years, and that all non-Uyghur peoples are non-indigenous immigrants to Xinjiang.
Chinese Muslim General Ma Bufangthe Republic of China's Taiwan ambassador to Saudi Arabia between andin response to a request by a former Uyghur Mufti living in Saudi Arabia, Abdul Ahad Hamed for accommodations to be granted to Uyghurs with Republic of China citizenship living outside of China, sent the following letter, which rejected Abdul Ahad Hamed's demands and his usage of the term "East Turkestan", upholding the official position of the Republic of China Taiwan that Xinjiang was a part of China and that it did not recognize the East Turkestan independence movement.
In general, the wide variety of groups who seek independence can be distinguished by both the type of government they advocate and the role they believe an independent East Turkestan should play in international affairs.
One of the most seminal events of the East Turkestan independence movement was the establishment of the East Turkistan Government-in-Exile by a group of immigrants led by Anwar Yusuf Turani in Washington D. Nonmilitant organizations which support the East Turkestan independence movement are as follows:. Some groups that support independence for East Turkestan are militant, most of which have been labeled terrorist organizations by many governments.
Historically, organizations which have supported the East Turkestan independence movement include:. Many of the Turkic peoples of the Ili region of Xinjiang had close cultural, political, and economic ties with Russia and then the Soviet Union.
Many of them were educated in the Soviet Union and a community of Russian settlers lived in the region. The Soviet Union incited separatist activities in Xinjiang through propaganda, encouraging Kazakhs to flee to the Soviet Union and attacking China.
China responded by reinforcing the Xinjiang-Soviet border area specifically with Han Bingtuan militia and farmers. The Soviet historians claimed that the Uyghur native land was Xinjiang and Uyghur nationalism was promoted by Soviet versions of history on turcology.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.